The Sponge Model



Models are representations of concepts, objects, or systems, some of which can be excellent teaching tools. A household sponge will be used to demonstrate several characteristics of the relations of soil and water.


dry sponge runoff wetting sponge


"Dry" Soils


Infiltration and Runoff


Wetting and Saturation

water held drainage bearing capacity


Water Holding Capacity


Percolation and Drainage


Engineering and Bearing Capacity